I see quite some time has been devoted to this subject. The first time I read the hairdresser example, the English struck me as quite wrong. I would add my two cents as follows:
If I went to the hairdresser, I'd spend a lot of money or If I went (had gone) to the hairdresser, I
would have spent a lot of money.
Those seem to me to be the simplest way to correct it because one can't correctly say I would spent.
We will correct that typo "I'd spent".
For your information, these sentences using "Si" with a past tense in the indicative are closer to being real than hypothetical. The "si" clause is closer to a "when" clause (When something happened). For this reason the translations that you are offering are not quite what we express here because they are talking about hypothetical events.
"If I went to the hairdresser, I'd spend a lot of money" is not necessarily a hypothetical, it can also refer to a pattern of behaviour in the past. In the latter sense it's equivalent to "whenever".
"If I went to the hairdresser, I spent a lot of money" would also be correct, and would mean the same.
In English, these are apparently referred to as "past real conditionals".
I'm still unsure about the "if he had an accident" example. Maybe the best translation would be:
"If he has had an accident, he won't be going to work this week."
Points well-taken. That sentence was jarring to me. Unfortunately, when I read it, I really wasn't considering the subject matter of the lesson. I was just remarking on the fact that, in English, one can't correctly say I would spent.
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