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Forming the plural of nouns ending in a consonant (except -z)

Spanish nouns that end in a consonant and refer to inanimate objects are generally masculine, although there are some exceptions. Look at these examples:

El árbol.
The tree.

El sol.
The sun.

El amor.
Love.

La estación.
The station.

La flor.
The flower.

Remember that you cannot predict the gender of inanimate objects, it needs to be memorised.

Whatever the gender, they all form their plural by adding -es. 

Read and listen to these examples:

El clavel. Los claveles.
The carnation. The carnations.

El portal. Los portales.
The hallway. The hallways.

La coliflor. Las coliflores.
The cauliflower. The cauliflowers.

El hogar. Los hogares.
The home. The homes.

See also:

Learn more about these related Spanish grammar topics

Examples and resources

El árbol.
The tree.


La estación.
The station.


El hogar. Los hogares.
The home. The homes.


El clavel. Los claveles.
The carnation. The carnations.


La coliflor. Las coliflores.
The cauliflower. The cauliflowers.


El portal. Los portales.
The hallway. The hallways.


El amor.
Love.


El sol.
The sun.


La flor.
The flower.


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