Verbos con cambio ortográfico c>zc (presente)

Stem-changing Spanish c>zc verbs in the present tense

Spanish verbs that end in a vowel + -cer/-cir swap the -c- for a -zc- in the yo form. For example conocer (to know/meet):

yo conozco
conoces
él / ella / Ud. conoce
nosotros / nosotras   conocemos
vosotros / vosotras  conocéis
ellos / ellas / Uds.  conocen

There are two common verbs, hacer and decir, that are exceptions to this rule. They have a different irregularity.

Some other verbs affected by this specific consonant switch are:

  • conducir (to drive)
  • permanecer (to stay)
  • ofrecer (to offer)
  • producir (to produce)
  • introducir (to intruduce)

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