Conjugate ser in El Pretérito Perfecto Compuesto (present perfect)

The verb ser (to be) is regular in El Pretérito Perfecto:

yo he  
has  
él/ella/usted ha   + sido
nosotros /-as hemos   
vosotros/-as habéis  
ellos /-as /ustedes han  

Like all regular verbs in El Pretérito Perfecto, it is formed by auxiliary verb haber in El Presente and its regular participle (sido).

Read and listen to these sentences with ser

Yo he sido siempre un hombre celoso.
I have always been a jealous man.

Tú no has sido nunca honesta conmigo.
You have never been honest with me.

Mi hija ha sido muy cariñosa toda su vida.
My daughter has been very loving all her life.

Nosotros hemos sido egoístas.
We have been selfish.

Vosotras habéis sido muy rápidas en la carrera.
You [plural informal] have been very fast on the race.

Los anfitriones han sido muy serviciales.
The hosts have been very accomodating.

Be careful with this special case:

- ¿Quién ha roto el jarrón?  -Yo no he sido, han sido ellos.
-Who broke the vase? - It wasn't me, it was them.

Notice how the expression in English is completely different to the Spanish. In Spanish we literally say "I have not been, they have been."

It would be incorrect to say "No fue yo" "No fue me" or "No fue ellos".

 

Learn more about these related Spanish grammar topics

Examples and resources

Nosotros hemos sido egoístas.
We have been selfish.


Los anfitriones han sido muy serviciales.
The hosts have been very accomodating.


Mi hija ha sido muy cariñosa toda su vida.
My daughter has been very loving all her life.


Vosotras habéis sido muy rápidas en la carrera.
You [plural informal] have been very fast on the race.


Tú no has sido nunca honesta conmigo.
You have never been honest with me.


Yo he sido siempre un hombre celoso.
I have always been a jealous man.


Q&A

Clara

Kwiziq community member

23 March 2019

5 replies

Buenos días,

Please could you tell me, how would you know which to use here-

‘Yo no he sido’- it wasn’t me 

Or

‘Yo no fui’- it wasn’t me

Thank you

Inma

Kwiziq language super star

23 March 2019

23/03/19

Hola Clara

If you are referring to an action that has just happened or feels very close to you in time you would use "Yo no he sido". But if you are clearly referring to an action that happened some time ago you would use the preterite "Yo no fui". 

Say for example that someone sees broken glass on the floor and says "¿Quién ha roto un vaso? (Who [just] broke a glass?) and you reply "Yo no he sido" (It wasn't me). The broken glass on the floor seems like something that has just happened, so it is recent. 

However if someone says "¿Quién rompió aquel vaso tan bonito el otro día? (Who broke that pretty glass the other day?), then you would reply "Yo no fui. Creo que fue Miguel" (It wasn't me. I think it was Miguel.) That is not a recent action; it is not connected to the time when you are speaking. We use the preterite here. 

This is one of the general differences between using the Pretérito Perfecto and the Pretérito Indefinido. There is a lesson with a lot of detail about this. Have a look:

When to use the perfect tense versus the simple past in European Spanish (Perfecto vs Indefinido)

Hope this helps

Saludos

Inma

Clara

Kwiziq community member

23 March 2019

23/03/19

Muchas gracias Inma, ahora lo tengo. 

Many years ago I was an infant teacher to very young Spanish children. I had very basic Spanish back then, to my shame I must say. I remember so well one little girl in my class who was a little ‘mimosa’, Laura. If ever something was broken or if there had been a small argument between the children she would come to me crying, ‘¡Yo no fui, yo no fui!’ She would be referring to something that had just happened.

Since in English we have just the one way of saying, ‘It wasn’t me’ I wonder how much harder it is for Spanish children learning their mother tongue and also when do they realise the differences in tenses. I suppose by listening to the differences spoken to them by parents and teachers. 

Thanks again Inma.

Inma

Kwiziq language super star

23 March 2019

23/03/19

That's very interesting, Clara. This little girl, was she from Latin America or Spain? I am asking because if she said "Yo no fui" for something that's just happened, that sounds more of a Latin American usage, or some parts of northern Spain. 

Clara

Kwiziq community member

23 March 2019

23/03/19

Hi again Inma,

Well now I’ve really learnt something. Yes, I was living and working in Gran Canaria. Thanks so much for that, it makes more sense now! 

Inma

Kwiziq language super star

25 March 2019

25/03/19

Yes, in the Canary Islands, as far as I know, this would be common. :))

I'll be right with you...